The European forging industry employed around 70,000 people in 2012, producing nearly 6 billion metric tons of forgings with an annual turnover of approximately €12 billion. These are about 22.5% of the world’s forging production[Eur12]. The main components of the production costs are material and energy costs. The material costs sum up to 50% for parts made of steel[Rit09] and increase up to 90% for forged parts made of titanium[Lue07]. Additionally the forging industry consumes ...

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